Ekovir or Acyclovir is an antiviral drug, a synthetic analogue of the acyclic purine nucleoside, which has a highly selective effect on herpes viruses. Inside viral infected cells, viral thymidine kinase undergoes a series of successive transformations of acyclovir into mono-, di-, and acyclovir triphosphate.
Acyclovir triphosphate is inserted into the viral DNA chain and blocks its synthesis through competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase. In vitro, acyclovir is active against Herpes simplex type 1 and 2, Varicella zoster; higher concentrations are required to inhibit Epstein-Barr virus. In vivo acyclovir is therapeutically and prophylactically effective primarily for viral infections caused by Herpes simplex.
Acyclovir tablets, indications for use
- Treatment of infections of the skin and mucous membranes caused by Herpes simplex type 1 and 2, both primary and secondary, including genital herpes;
- Prevention of exacerbations of recurrent infections caused by the virus Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 in patients with normal immune status;
- Prevention of primary and recurrent infections caused by the Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 virus in patients with immunodeficiency;
as part of complex therapy in patients with severe immunodeficiency: in HIV infection (AIDS stage, early clinical manifestations and detailed clinical picture) and in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation;
- Treatment of primary and recurrent infections caused by the virus Varicella zoster (chickenpox, shingles).
- On the part of the digestive system: in isolated cases – abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; rarely, a transient increase in liver enzyme activity, hyperbilirubinemia.
- On the part of the blood system: rarely – leukopenia, erythropenia.
- From the side of the central nervous system: rarely – headache, weakness; in some cases – tremor, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness, hallucinations.
- Allergic reactions: skin rash; rarely – allergic dermatitis (when applying the ointment).
- Other: rarely – alopecia, fever, increased levels of urea and creatinine.
Dosage and administration
Dosing regimen set individually depending on the severity of the disease.
- In the treatment of infections of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the virus Herpes simplex type 1 and 2, adults and children over 2 years of age Acyclovir is prescribed 200 mg 5 times / day for 5 days at intervals of 4 hours during the day and at intervals of 8 hours at night . In more severe cases, the disease may increase the course of treatment.
- As part of complex therapy for severe immunodeficiency, including the expanded clinical picture of HIV infection (including early clinical manifestations of HIV infection and the AIDS stage), after bone marrow implantation, 400 mg is prescribed 5 times / day.
- For the prevention of recurrence of infections caused by the Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 virus, patients with a normal immune status and with a relapse of the disease are prescribed 200 mg 4 times / day every 6 hours.
- For the prevention of infections caused by the Herpes simplex type 1 and 2 virus, adults and children over 2 years old with immunodeficiency, the drug is prescribed 200 mg 4 times / day every 6 hours, the maximum dose is 400 mg 5 times / day.